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When there is a change in voltage in the terminal bouton, voltage-gated calcium channels embedded in the membranes of these boutons become activated.These allow Ca2 ions to diffuse through these channels and bind with synaptic vesicles within the terminal boutons.
In the human brain alone, there are over eighty billion neurons.
Cellular neuroscience is the study of neurons at a cellular level.
This includes morphology and physiological properties of single neurons.
Some neurons such as photoreceptor cells, for example, do not have myelinated axons that conduct action potentials.
Other unipolar neurons found in invertebrates do not even have distinguishing processes such as dendrites.The Hodgkin–Huxley model of an action potential in the squid giant axon has been the basis for much of the current understanding of the ionic bases of action potentials.